LES - Lineage Evolution SystemLes is a command-line tool based on Ales for simulating the evolution of cell lineage complexity.
Development Made Simple"Everything should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler," Albert Einstein once said. Nature seems to agree. Cells become specialized by following a certain predetermined lineage, but we have found that they take a developmental path that is simpler than that expected by chance alone. We compared the known cell lineages of three different nematodes and an ascidian with those generated by a computer program. The algorithm allowed us to contrast the developmental complexity in different organisms with the simplest systems having the least number of steps to fully mature. Our research showed that the specialization processes were significantly simpler than that predicted by chance, but still not as basic as they could be (Azevedo et al., 2005).